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Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Slave Ships And The Middle Passage

by Credo (writer), I practice living in the Spirit, June 01, 2011

Credit: The National Archives, United Kingdom
Slaves with Arab men” Zanzibar, 1850-1890
watch the video

What was it like to be a member of the slave ships during the Middle Passage of the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade?

A suitable slave memorial concerning the middle passage would at the very least cause one to remember the smell of the human body during great fear, you should be able to taste the essences of long term perspiration in your mental palate, you should almost feel yourselves lying in your own excrement, or envision sleeping for several weeks close and up personal next to death, while looking in the bruised and abused faces of the old the sick, the diseased, and the dying. Once you've achieved that mental extremism of the dream state (“The Middle Passage”, the adverse conditions on board the slave ships in the early 15th and 16th hundreds), you will see the actual event as if it were presently realistic, just look around in this dream and take notice, when the wind blew you could smell the dreadful odor emanating from a slave ship miles away, slaves sometimes died of asphyxiation, consider the sounds of the slave ships, the horrifying screams of the tortured, deep bellowing sounds that seem to come from all quarters of the vessel, shattering your hopes while assembling your greatest fears. In your surrealistic dream state you would be relentlessly witnessing the last distressing breath of many of the dying that was left to expire on board to provide feed for the surviving slaves whenever food rations began to run out. The social reality of the slave ships was one big monument of horrifying terror, all sorts of ills were seen on board with no possible way to escape the mere vision of its monstrosities. Upon coming on board the slaves were immediately undressed, strip naked washed and chained to the gallows below deck.

Being on board a slave ship was a dastardly experience, there you were forcibly stripped bare naked , and with you were your father and mother, your friends and family all berated together on the same vessel of madness. Humiliation became a great component to the active psychology of enslavement, for example the Mandingo (which were the big strong black male warrior's) were being felt up (whites men were feeling their pensis) by the oppressors who for some odd reason was fascinated by the black warrior's male organ, it was also recognized among the white slave masters that these black men had severed the foreskin of their penises (circumcision) which was a strange and new phenomenon to them. Meanwhile black women were being raped by them as an experiment, to experience something contrastive and it was an immediate way to denigrate the entire race.

The various atrocities that were manually conducted against the black slave was by far more than just to humiliate them, or to demolish any mental strength that the slave may have mentally sheltered, it was a way of having the slaves come to the internal understanding that there was absolutely nothing that they could do to stay the hand or stop the desires of their new white slave masters, that their black lives were totally in the hands of their oppressors.

“Once aboard the ships the blacks would be packed below deck. Captains of slave ships were known as either "loose packers" or "tight packers", depending upon how many slaves they crammed into the space they had. Most ships, especially those of the later 18th century, were "tight packers", carrying a huge quantity of slaves who were often forced to lie in spaces smaller than that of a grave, or in some cases stacked spoon-fashion on top of one another. Regardless, life for a slave in the "tween decks", as they were called, was extremely uncomfortable. In addition to extreme overcrowding, there was also inadequate ventilation, not to mention little or no sanitation. Although some captains would have their crew periodically clean the "tween decks" with hot vinegar, most chose rather to leave them alone, resulting in their atrociously unclean condition. In addition to disease and suffocation below deck, it would not be uncommon to find the body of a slave completely covered by lice.

Eventually, after the arduous 3,700 mile voyage, the slave ship would reach North America. In order to strengthen them before sale, the slaves were normally fed better in the days directly before their arrival in the new world, however their suffering was far from over. Before they could be sold, the slaves would be oiled to make their skin shiny and any imperfections, such as scars from whippings, would be filled in with hot tar in order to improve their appearance and get the best market price.

Most slave ships would not be allowed to dock in the ports which they came to due to their horrible stench and the fear of the spread of any diseases which had been spread throughout the ship. Therefore, the slavers would drop anchor a few miles off shore and carry the slaves to land in smaller boats which had been stored aboard the ship. The slaves would then be sold at auction and would live through the rest of their lives in wicked involuntary servitude.

Clearly, life on board the slave ships was hellish for the black captives.”

Tools of the slave trade for example were things like the metal laced whips (cat-o'-nine-tails) used to cut into the flesh of its victims, shackles, shackling people together whilst the iron shackles bore into the flesh of the slaves as they were transported.

“The captains needed to keep the slaves in acceptable physical condition if they were to be sold at high prices, so each morning after breakfast the slaves were "danced" on deck, in order to give them exercise. Still shackled together, the men were forced to jump up and down until often the flesh of their ankles was raw and bleeding from the iron chains which bound them together. The women and children, who were free of such bonds were better able to dance to the rhythm that was pounded out on an African drum or iron kettle, sometimes with the accompaniment of a fiddle or African banjo played by a crew member. The slaves, otherwise kept miserably in the "tween decks", enjoyed this dancing, as it was their only form of physical recreation during the entire day. Each day at sunset the slaves would be placed back below deck to rest in the misery and filth that was the "tween decks". During the morning exercises members of the crew roved about the deck carrying whips and would beat those slaves who refused to "dance". Although most whips were made only of simple rope, the wicked cat-o'-nine-tails was also used aboard many slavers. Consisting of nine cords coated with tar, each with a knot at the end, the cat-o'-nine-tails could slash the skin of a slave's back to ribbons in only a few lashes.”

http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3487/lembrich/seminar5.html

Torture was generally utilized to control and to instill long term fear. The “Speculum Orus” was another historic tool that would most certainly be on display at the imaginary slave memorial, it was used to force slaves to devour solid foods to keep them from going on hunger strikes, it was a tool of the slave masters which forced slaves to ingest food against their will. Examples were made of anyone who would rebel, chopping people up joint by joint, strangulation to the point of eyes popping out from their heads, whips cutting into the wind and the skin of the slaves, thumb nail screws and so on.

First hand experience with the slave trade where the following people who are also book authors include:

James field Standfield wrote letters about the slave ships

John Newton a slave ship captain who wrote amazing grace, as a Christian while making slave trade excursions. He testified before parliament saying some captains used thumb screws, he himself used them on children.

The regime of violence and terror that went hand in hand with the business of the slave trade was not the anomalous enigma but rather the tenacious norm of the slave institution while the slave resistance to this inhuman treatment was commendable and extraordinarily creative.

Many rebellious slaves were chained to the outer side of the slave ships to become bait and food for the sharks, some were thrown over board and some jumped to their deaths in order to escape the harsh treatment of slavery. The middle passage produced an indifferent form of abuse, which produced many psychologically unstable mental thorns within the slaves, thus having pessimistically influenced the health and the mentality of the slaves for generations to come. Merely lying on the hard wood floors chained together for months during the trip caused unusual health conditions, such as body lesions, torn flesh or ruptured skin from the boat rocking back and forth, insanity due to claustrophobia which often times lead to violence between slaves who killed one another for the privilege of obtaining more personal space aboard the vessel. Space was limited as the slaves were always over booked, packed like fish or sardines in a can, leaving two feet overhead and 18 inches between slaves. In addition to a lack of space, slaves were also chained tightly together, with very little freedom of movement, simultaneously fear and agitation was rampant among the slaves, the atmosphere was chilling of fear, damp and wet with discomfort.

Then there was the tremendous weight of a dead body pulling at the reins of the chains that bind many of the slaves to dead corpses, its rotting flesh, its over sensitized smell, the infection and diseases that emanated from its open wounds and vernacular orifice, the sight of the lice and worms that consumed the body; all of this was an average day, a testament of horror concerning the social environment aboard those hellish slave ships

Women who had mulatto babies as a result of being raped by the captain and the crew members left their afterbirth decaying among them in the cargo slave quarters, the blood and the stench in their bedding compartments which was the same area where they ate and defecated, and where they slept was atrocious, the diseases that stem from this condition was inexplicable. Under these bad conditions we could understand how many of the slaves were immersed in a mountain of insects, lying next to a two week old corpse who's dead body was being eaten by ants, flies, worms, rats or worse. Suddenly we have a clue to the time it took for the slave ships to reach shore, as it took a woman nine months to have a baby on board, but just a few minutes for the crew members to toss it over board. Sharks followed the boat's shadow that it cast in the water or the stench that generally trailed the slave ships knowing that a human slave would be thrown overboard, because of sickness, diseases, as a punishment for disobedience, or to instill fear in the remaining slaves, sometimes babies were cast aside by the crew members for mere fun and entertainment (merely to pass the time). Babies that were stripped from their mothers arms died horrifically as their mothers melted emotionally from the sight of their babies being thrown over board, to be abruptly devoured by the sharks.

After slavery was abolished the slave ships continued to actively transport slaves around the world, it was when a British or international policing ship was in sight that the captain of these illegal slave ships would then order the complete eradication of all the slaves on board, so they threw over board the big ball and chain which then pulled all of the slaves that was chained to that ball into the ocean to drown or to be eaten by the sharks.

http://www1.somerset.gov.uk/archives/Images/EducImages/SLAVERY1.gif

There was no governable system which accounted for the millions of persons that died as a result of these factors, although some captains maintained records of their human cargo many were afraid of arrest after slavery was legally banded, so they never kept records that would suffice as a tool for their own imprisonment.

“Another inhuman practice of the crews of the slave ships was that of "bedwarming". In this custom a member of the crew, or sometimes even the captain, would take a slave women out from the 'tween decks during the night. The woman would be taken back to either the captain's chamber or the crew's living quarters and be beaten and physically forced to have sexual relations with the crew member. This practice demonstrated the complete rape of the African-American culture by the slave traders of the Middle Passage, both figuratively and literally.

Although most of the victims of the Middle Passage found themselves helpless to resist their captors, there were occasional uprisings on the slave ships.

“Yet the worst time of the Middle Passage came for the slaves when the ship was met with periods of bad weather. During storms the blacks were forced to remain below deck all day and night. The holds were dark, filthy, slimy, and they stank of death. The "tween decks" were often full not only with slaves, both living and dead, but also with blood, vomit, urine, and human waste. Also during periods of inclement weather the slaves were not fed as usual. They were often forced to scrounge for small crumbs and pieces of spoiled food and drink from stagnant puddles of extremely impure water.”

The middle passage was a notorious time for the Negro people, I assume thats why no one wants to remember or talk about it, it's tales are all but removed from the general records of modern history books. Black education today doesn't adequately include the harsh realities of the middle passage, nor does it describe the the horrific treatment of the slaves once they came ashore to be sold to people who spoke a strange language, looked extremely different from themselves, and who had an inexplicable hatred for the slaves which seemed unnatural sense the slaves had done nothing wrong against these foreigners to warrant such venomous hatred an mistreatment from them. Hatred became a delectable business tool which substantiated the subjugation of over 100 million slaves in the Americas alone and this is one of the lowest but modest educated estimations about the slave trade in the Americas, it is suspected to be much higher. Considerations has also never been paid to the amount of countless slaves that were transported throughout the entire world; How many of these black slaves were transported throughout this world and what kind of heinous treatment must they have endured at the hands of their captors? The only reason these thoughts aren't considered is because the slave masters knew that it would be unwise to allow the slaves to realize that black slavery was not merely an American undertaking but a global endorsement sanctioned by the European economic elitist and the religious leaders of the Christian Roman Catholicism. It was through Roman Catholicism that Christianity was forcefully imprinted on the minds of black slaves as they were not Christians upon their arrival, at least not the kind of Christian that we recognize today. As a social scientist we must analyze and question many different idealogical areas about the black slave trade which have never been investigated before, and we must beg the reason why they have been overlooked. For instance why was one nation of people targeted for the slave trade, what crime had they done to the other nations to secure such a judgment of hatred, everlasting and universal enslavement? Why is it that these black slaves and the nation from which they derived became such a competitive threat to all other nations? Some say that it was because they controlled the land of resources which all the nations wanted, Africa indeed had the most prominent natural resources in the world but this was a bogus reason to enslave an entire nation for all nations have traded with one another for resources, so why did they do this to the black slave? There is some marketable differences about the so called black slave that is being systematically hidden by the associated establishment; but why? After hearing about the Jewish Holocaust as an unending sermon which (the Jewish Holocaust)lasted for six years and with the loss of six to seven million Jews to Hitler, black people are socially ostracized from speaking about a black Holocaust that spanned over 400 years and with a loss so great the count of the deaths were inexplicable, the deaths incurred in the middle passage alone surpassed that of the Jewish Holocaust. The silence of the lambs is the epitome of the long held secrets of the American drama, held in check by social agents who are the system's social controllers denying the right to decent or to remember black history as it relates to the black Holocaust here in America and abroad the annals of this world. This long held silence is the disease that will maintain and foster the growing monster of anger, hatred and the dilapidated race relations between the children of the slaves and the children of the slave masters. Coming together as Americans is an impossibility, an impractical notion at best unfolding itself into a harsh future between the slave masters who have become the deniers of truth and justice, and the hungry servants the slaves who are staving for truth and justice, this quandary of differences makes it extremely improbable for any real unity between the races within the romanticism of the American dream. The complications which exist between the races grows as this silent siren bellows notifying the world of those opposing differences, there is such divergence of life among Americans particularly among black and white that actual unity is a far reaching pipe dream. The dream professes to unify the rich with the poor even though it is the rich that intrinsically endeavors to maintain their growing riches through the exploitation of the poor which produces a greater degree of economic misfortune for the poor. You know the saying the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. While we note that justice is only for those with money, we fail to recognize that even those who have money must also be sanctioned by the establishment in order to receive their equal share of just us. Meaning that if you are black or white and are rich but not connected to the servitude of the establishment you are not eligible for their (European Elites) brand of justice. Sense Blacks politically have no historic nationality and sense they have allowed the Government the honor of branding their nationality as blacks, Afro Americans, African Americans, Colored People, and 14th Amendment citizens they are not legally entitled to reparations according to any law within the world, because there is no such historic nationality among any of these dubbed names, and 14th Amendment citizens are subjects under the queen and king of England, so blacks are not legally entitled to anything. Slaves allowed themselves to be named by their slave masters due to the harsh treatment of slavery, but after so called freedom had come they also allowed the government to name them as one would a pet or a slave. Who is the government? The government was established as a corporation so that any thing that it did it would not impact the personal lives of the people who ran it. Therefore they could kill, murder, destroy countries, and enslave people under the slave trade then under the false flag of the 14th amendment they taxed their own government slaves. This amended law (the 14th amendment ) states that all people under this amendment were now citizens of the government and subject to its laws and jurisdictions, effectively using the so called end of slavery to enslave blacks and whites because it states that all people born or naturalized in the United States are Citizens of the government. A form of passive aggression in which people was passively forced into the 14th Amendment without their lawful authorization. This was done without the consent of the people thereby making and viewing all people serfs of the state's governing body the federal government. So instead of setting the black slaves free to go back to their natural habitations they further compounded the evil that was done to them by enveloping them into another brand of enslavement, and then took that opportunity to enslave their own race through financial and political means. The powers that be continues to see the land called America, its resources, and its people as their property, and it justifies this notion of divine ownership through the rights of the mighty to rule over the weak. To maintain the confusion of the masses they supplanted the question; What does it matter if you are black, or why can't blacks just forget about slavery and live as Americans? The hippocracy of such questions, the insensitivity is overwhelming, here we are in the 21th century living under unusual circumstances as the children of the slave masters continue to denigrate the very intelligence of the children of the slaves by subconsciously suggesting that your historical Holocaust is not important enough for anyone to consider, to remember, or your nationality (your race) which was deemed by them as black {a color} shouldn't matter. After 400 years of being referred to as a color (“black”) which is really a void of color, now to the European people who named themselves “White” all of a sudden it doesn't matter what color Jesus was, or what color the original Jews were. Color has always mattered in this country, color determined if you were more than likely to be enslaved or not, it determined the social treatment one would receive, either the civil treatment as a white man or woman or the barbaric treatment of living in America as a black man or woman. Black men were castrated, mutilated merely for appearing to notice a White woman or for merely being accused of looking at a white woman. The color of one's skin played a major role in the devilish treatment, the death and brutalization of the black race prior to, during and after slavery, the color issue was always a momentous issue in America. Nevertheless the color line has never diminished from its evil decorum, black skin color continues to determine treatment as many blacks are denied loans, jobs, equal housing accommodations, the development of human rights was more on account of blackness (color) than anything else, certain racism exist to the point that blacks were not able to legally combat these issues, because the lack of proof of these infractions (being denied human rights or civil rights) left no grounds substantiated enough to indict. On a personal level blacks continue to experience racism and the sorted after effects from slavery yet the social correctness imposed on blacks engenders them to disregard their experiences and not complain. It is not politically correct to speak about color issues, slavery, racism, hatred as an eugenic ingredient of slavery and racism, nor is it proper to study or report the history of enslavement, (thats why black history is relatively a new curriculum here in America) especially if that history is mentally a social hindrance to the political unity of the races. Unfortunately America is without genuine unity because of the hidden secrets and the embedded pain growing from those historical falsities. We can never heal if we are not willing to acknowledge the debilitating roles of our shared history, and the roles of the wretched and the assailants is still played out today. I forgot to mention the the term “victim”, which is another verbal paradigm that is socially ostracized and held imprisoned as a politically incorrect word, so many people are afraid to use it, thinking it to be a politically incorrect term. However blacks were victims in slavery, in Jim crow, in the segregation movement, in the civil rights movement , in the woman's lib movement, within racism, within the 14th Amendment, with in the justice department, they were victims during and after slavery and remain victims till this day, victimize on a daily basis under the income tax system that once charged white slave masters income taxes on blacks as property and now they charge many blacks as tax payers and some as tax evaders. What can we say then, is it alright to talk about slavery, about racism in America, the hatred of blacks all around the world; or should we believe that it is all smoking mirrors set up just for money and sport? The political cage must be undone, the doors that bind the minds of the people must be unlocked in order to free the conscious minds of the people who have been imprisoned their since slavery. Coming to the understanding that slavery wasn't just an historical event, it is a realistic journey that moved across time travel to embark on our present era disguised as pathological racism.

On the backs and shoulders of our ancestors we have clinically survived, and this is true of every culture and race, on the contrary blacks were never allowed by the political and social infrastructures to celebrate or memorialize that historic knowledge about themselves, they are not openly able to voice their feelings while invoking the pass mishaps concerning their holocaust like the Jewish people, the Japanese, the Germans and so forth. Therefore the harsh realities that we see occurring among the races is as a direct reaction to those restricted feelings that were never allowed the freedom to be said or heard. Perhaps we may come to understand basic physics someday that says that any monolithic growing pressure can not be contained, sooner or later an implosion will be discharged. Every now and then we have come to witness race riots, the burning of our cities, the army being called in by the state authorities in an attempt to retire the massive unrest, all of these events are as a result of that pending implosion on a smaller scale.

Black slaves died by the hundreds of thousands on those slave ships, yet people of color are socially lambasted for exploring it, publicly flogged verbally for speaking about their historical afflictions, for expounding on the details of slavery and racism as a means to dislodge some of their own pain and anguish. Our present pathologies wont appropriate the social forum necessary for the alleviation of those long lasting psychological burdens that most holocaust members are still plagued with, in light of the narration of the slave ships and its destructive demographic mentality that lingers today. And because we as people of color are not privy to explore and relieve ourselves of such inner ulcerated burdens, there is a lot going on in the subconscious mind of the so called Negro. Without a memorial we have never been allowed the opportunity to honor our fallen, to teach our children upon whom shoulders they stand, we are unable to tell them who they were and how their fore parents died, so that they may live today unscathed. Dear babies how you have suffered, not realizing who you are, never trusting in yourselves because you had no examples of such devotion, courage, and wisdom to draw from. No one told you that you had ancestors of great worth before, with enormous talents, skills and beliefs. Most of the black children today don't know anything about the great tribulation (maffa) or the middle passage, they are estranged from their own history, and so they feel nothing (spiritual void) for the struggles of their own forebears and nothing for their people at present. The lessons of the slave ships, and the conclave stories about the middle passage is a essential curriculum for the rejuvenation of today's black youth. These lessons are painful reappraisals of our history but they are an essential evil that we must under go to overcome that tense history..

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-4gP14JdTw

Because of the tremendous atrocities accounted for during the trans Atlantic slave Trade, and the horrific challenges faced aboard the slave ships during the middle passage, black enslavement has been unmatched and unparalleled to any other form of slavery throughout the history of the world.

No other people can claim to have been scattered throughout the entire world, nor can they claim to have been displaced from their entire culture, history, or the various distortions of their religious and personal morays, for the most part all other forms of slavery didn't decimate the normalities of their entire race for all times. “Virtually every Nation on Earth had slaves or the equivalent of slavery” but it was only the black nationality that experienced the worse form of enslavement, losing its history, their God, its morays, their family or national name and culture, finally being permanently branded by the social and judicial establishment as the 'SLAVE RACE”. This was a detriment that couldn't be undone, repaid, or rectified. There simply isn't any comparison in any categorical or moral sense. It's rather strange but reconizable that when ever the topic of black enslavement comes up there is always some folks who will challenge the realities of that history by comparing other nationalities and their brush with slavery to that of the black race when there is no comparative categorical scheme to match black enslavement. The death toll (the statistics of black enslavement) alone goes unmatched, the longevity of black enslavement is unparalleled to any other enslavement. It is widely noted that fear, and shame, anger and hatred promotes many indiviuals to struggle against the lessons that time has taught the world about the worse form of slavery.



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Credo is a writer for BrooWaha. For more information, visit the writer's website.
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38 comments on Slave Ships And The Middle Passage

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:18 pm

Thank you TheTAZZone for your input, I always appreciate the opinions of others. However it is infinitely clear that we will never see the same horizon on this issue.

As always:

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 12:40 pm

Credo,

"There was no governable system which accounted for the millions of persons that died." This is the unvarnished truth. It must be remembered that most scholars believe a reasonable estimate is that as many died during the middle passage as survived to reach the Americas. Also, a trip in which only 25% died was considered a success. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that millions died.

Additionally, compare to the better documented Holocaust in Europe under the Nazis rule, those people who were found alive in the death camps were still the victims of atrocity. The same is true of the captive Africans who landed in the Americas only to be thrown into enslavement.

With this greivous injustice blighting our background, a courageous, conscious, continuing effort will be needed to help all our brothers and sisters rise to the high ground of mutual regard and genuine benevolence.

It is time for us to join hands and move on up!

Larry

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:49 pm

Hi TheTAZZone

I believe your form of critic is nonobjective but I honor it;

After going through the motions of reciprocally disagreeing on so many points it becomes unproductive to continue such a debate. However I have no bias against Canadians, if you believe that I do simply because I mentioned two forms of sports in my previous article I am sorry for your misconception.

Credo

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:54 pm

Caballero_69

Thank you for your comment.

Hard subject, emotionally charged and most run from it.

Credo

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 01:08 pm

I assume that's your objective analysis.

OK

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 02:02 pm

Credo,

Integrity is tell ourselves the truth; honesty is telling the truth to others.

In these exchanges, you have done both.

As you say, this is a charged subject. It stalks our past and roams our present like a ferocious dragon. We must face it down and make the fury power our drive for a world where such things are inconceivable . The good news, such as it is, is we do not have to do this alone.

We are together, not alone. When we can't go on, we can take the held held out by a brother [or a sister]. Each can do what each can; everyone can lend a heart and a hand!

Carry it On!

Larry

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:13 pm

Melody J Haislip

It's heart wrenching, and as a nation we are not able to overcome the mental devastation that it has left behind.

Thank you, I appreciate your comment.

Credo

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:22 pm

Caballero_69

The larger issue is never really consulted in forums like this, because of such an emotionally charged subject as this we generally deliberate out of emotion. If the simple things can take us so far off course, what hope do we have of solving the greater issues?

Thanks

Credo

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By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:42 pm

Askcherlock

You know; people may not recognize the pain of this subject for blacks, it is probably just as difficult for me to write about this issue as it is for many others to read and hear about it. My averment over this issue is much greater than the statistics of the matter, and I do apologize, but slavery, racism and the long held silence of these issues is such an affront to the future prosperity and equality that should have been natural and present around the globe.

I hope you except my most modest thanks

Credo

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By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:50 am

the Tazzone this is not American history, it always amaze me when people try to present the slave trade as an American deal. that is so far from the truth. the trade start in the early 15 and 16 century by the european contry such as french, england, portugal, spain. didn't you know that. The US as a nation never participate in the slave trade as George W Bush had mention in his book. by the time he US become a nation slavery was already abolish by the british and the french decade before the brith. so if you know anything about history you will know and undestand eenthought US have a great number of black slave back when they became a free nation. but US is not a slave nation. in no way the nation could said free all your slaves, we see what happen about 100 year later when the north thing it was time to free all black. it wasn t simple. if the 14 state had deal with that subject the day after independence day, the US as we know it will not be here. so Tazzone get your fact right.

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By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:58 am

and by the way the french had the caraibean and loiusiana , while the english used south of the united state and the caraibean to have their slaves. so your statement am not an american am a canadian i dont have any guilty feelings about american slavery is so stupid and show how uninform you are. as a french or english your people had participate in the slaves trades you should be a shame of yourself, it is time to clean yourself from the blood you have in your soul. stop saying you did not participate or have nothing to do with slavery.

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By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 08:00 am

in

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By Anastasia on June 02, 2011 at 07:15 pm

The horror is difficult to imagine.

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By Caballero_69 on June 02, 2011 at 08:39 pm

While there is some room argument over statistics and specifics, it is undeniable that the Maafa inflicted excruciating suffering and grotesque indignities on hundreds of thousands of human beings through abduction, enslavement, imperialistic colonization, dehumanization, oppression and exploitation. It also cannot be denied that academic and social factors and forces have categorized Africans into color labels and relegated many of them explicitly and almost all of them implicitly into economic, social, political, and legal disenfranchisement with continuing manifestations in contemporary societies.

Recognizing this as a genuine Holocaust perpetrated over centuries does not reveal an enervating, reflexive guilt complex. It simply shows a willingness to recognize a glaring example of “man’s inhumanity to man.” The fact that we are all demonstrably human is no guarantee that we are all authentically humane.

No living North American bears any guilt for atrocities committed in past decades let alone those perpetrated in past centuries. On the other hand, every living North American should be candid enough to recognize the monstrous dimensions of this catastrophe and regret its occurrence. Furthermore, American citizens have a profound, patriotic obligation to rise up and live out the true meaning of the Republic’s creed. We are honor bound to join hands and work together to counteract the continuing toxic effects of these deplorable practices. If we are to be as good as our words, we must bind up the psychic wounds of our sisters and brothers and achieve a just and lasting peace among ourselves. Then, we must go forth to lead the land we love toward genuine liberty, equality, and prosperity for all as one people in one nation indivisible.

Deep in my heart, I do believe we shall overcome someday!

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:59 am

"Danimal 09-02-2001, 01:34 PMAs

many of you know, the Middle Passage refers to the routes across the Atlantic that the slave ships took while delivering Africans from the Guinea Coast to Brazil, the Caribbean, and continental North America. The pain, humiliation, and deadliness of this voyage to the Africans packed like sardines in the disease-ridden ships' holds are now legendary. However, the sources I have found disagree hugely as to how many people actually made this brutal trip and how many were killed by the voyage.Nine million Africans made the passage, and one million of them (c. 11%) died en route. So says John Reader in Africa: A Biography of the Continent.15% to 25% of the slaves died in the Middle Passage. So says Dale Taylor in The Writer's Guide to Everyday Life in Colonial America.24 million Africans made the Middle Passage, and 9 million (c. 38%) died en route. So says Richard Armstrong in The Merchantmen.25 to 50 million Africans died in the Middle Passage. So says The Middle Passage Institute (http://www.tmpf.org/history.htm).30 to 60 million Africans made the Middle Passage, and 67%(20 to 40 million) died en route. So says Dr. John Henrick Clarke (http://www.juneteenth.com/middlep.htm).Good grief, people! The number of deportations and deaths from the slave trade probably isn't as meticulously well-documented as, say, the carnage of the Holocaust. But when the figures disagree by a whole friggin' order of magnitude, somebody's gotten sloppy! Which of these figures are supported by real data and scholarship, and which figures are the writers pulling out of their behinds?"

Read this at

http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/archive/index.php/t-85026.html

Credo

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 01:30 am

All of these figures are estimations, because they were not backed up by solid data as there were limited records kept by the captains or the crew. Although profit was the main focus of the journey it wasn't the only consideration that determined the death toll of the slaves. there were countless ships which slaughtered 100% of their slaves in order to escape the police ships that patrolled the seas looking for pirate ships that disobeyed the abolition against slavery once slavery became illegal.

Credo

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 06:59 am

Many countries participated in the slave trade, British ships were only one aspect of that movement.

“the Brits who were policing slavery ( the good guys )

Strange that you would call the British 'the good guys”

most of the profits from slavery and the initial reasons for slavery was largely due to the Brits

You can research this sorted but detailed information on-line, however here is a hyperlink to such information

http://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_45.html

To start with, British traders supplied slaves for the Spanish and Portuguese colonists in America. However, as British settlements in the Caribbean and North America grew, often through wars with European countries such as Holland, Spain and France, British slave traders increasingly supplied British colonies

The exact number of British ships that took part in the Slave Trade will probably never be known but, in the 245 years between Hawkins first voyage and the abolition of the Slave Trade in 1807, merchants in Britain dispatched about 10,000 voyages to Africa for slaves, with merchants in other parts of the British Empire perhaps fitting out a further 1,150 voyages.

Historian, Professor David Richardson, has calculated that British ships carried 3.4 million or more enslaved Africans to the Americas.”

The first record of enslaved Africans being landed in the British colony of Virginia was in 1619. Barbados became the first British settlement in the Caribbean in 1625 and the British took control of Jamaica in 1655.

The establishment of the Royal African Company in 1672 formalized the Slave Trade under a royal charter and gave a monopoly to the port of London. The ports of Bristol and Liverpool, in particular, lobbied to have the charter changed and, in 1698, the monopoly was taken away."

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 08:20 am

This article has generated a blizzard of commetary.

So, I'll pitch in again.

It seems to me that two related adages, God is in the detail and The Devil is in the details, are opposite ideas as God and the Devil are held to be. When God is in the detail, it suggests to me that fine details improve the whole. While The Devil in the details seems to imply that, the fine details detrimentally affect the whole. In this brouhaha [intense interest and excited exchange], I believe the Devil is at its mischievous best in this detail-based wrangle. How many deaths would it take until we knew that too many people had died? Are 1,000 enough, 100,000, 1,000,000, or 10,000,000?

While it looks like objectivity to pursue a precise figure or a well-bounded estimate, this seems devilish to me. Let us see the forest regardless of the number of trees.

If people of Jewish descent have a moral right and responsibility to themselves, their children, and the world, to inform and educate humanity about theHolocaust perpetrated by the Nazis, do not people of African descent have a similar right and responsibility to themselves, their children, and the world regarding theMaafa? The visual force of the Holocaust Museum has a significant impact on those who visit it. It is the right and responsibility Jewish people to create and sustain a living testimony to the horrors of the Holocaust so that the world will never forget what happened and we all resolve so much pain and death will not recur. Would this be any less the case if documents indicated one million Jews and other minorities suffered died at the hands of the Nazis and their henchmen rather than the generally accepted six million? I think not.

Can anyone seriously dispute the adverse impacts of the atrocities inflicted on the European Jews linger to some extent in persons of Jewish descent in the present day? Can anyone effectively argue that the key issue is not what was done, but to how many was it done? I doubt it.

If millions of Africans experienced horrendous deaths and depraved brutality at the hands of their captors, jailers, overseers, masters and others as it is known they did, would not a Maafa Museum be appropriate? I think so. Can anyone honestly refute the contention that the toxic effects of these depredations pollute the lives of many people of African heritage even in the present? I doubt this as well.

Marcus Garvey, known as the Father of Black Consciousness, asserted, “If we as a people realized the greatness from which we came, we would be less likely to disrespect ourselves.” I would modify this to assert, If we as Americans, of every shade and shape, realized the greatness to which we are called by our most fundamental civic ideals, we would be less likely to disrespect one another. Repeatedly, in the history of the Republic, Americans of African descent have responded to suggestions, offers, and inducements to abandon the land for resettlement in Africa with the declaration “We are Americans.” In every war this nation has fought, both the just and the predatory, citizens of African descent have taken up arms and lain down their lives for this country. In my own personal experience, a brave Black American died by my side while we defended the defenseless.

The enormities of the pain wracked and blood soaked past cannot be undone. However, we the living, can highly resolve that those who suffered and died shall not have done so in vain. We can come together; we can struggle together; we can triumph together and realize the promise to which all Americans are heirs. If we realize that whatever our ethnic heritage may be, we share a civic heritage yet to be fully actualized and animated among us, we can grieve for the past together and strive for the future side by side. Let us begin.

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By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 08:21 am

For some reason, I could not get the bold off the bulk of this comment. It was supposed to be written in plain text.

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 08:49 am

TheTAZZone

I don't consider nor do I believe that many blacks would consider the British Empire to be good, they have prospered off of the backs of the slaves and have not restored or paid back what they have gained as a result of such inhumane activities. Their position to abolish slavery and to port some ships in that duty isn't enough to fashion them as good, in a large sense they were part of the larger problem in the establishment of slavery. Your constant insults is not a good sign of your internal intentions concerning this article. If you want people to get a better understanding of your side of the equation and view point it will not be at the barrel of your constant verbal guns that you wheel each time your are annoyed. Try to reason with a little consideration and forbearance.

Credo

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 08:51 am

Caballero_69

As always it is my pleasure to witness your commentaries

Credo

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By PATRICK PETION on June 03, 2011 at 11:33 am

Dean I never disagree with the fact that they were illegal slave trade. but my point is this idiot accussing the US as been a slave nation, which is completly faulse and at the same time he wrote: sorry i am a canadian not an American so i don't have any guilty feeling about American slavery. what a stupid statement, eventhought some was still illegally involve in the slave trade, but it has been abolish before the US become a nation. and every white person is gulty of that trade. I would argue their were few of them as jean jacques rousseau and sonthonax in france whom oppose of the slave trade. but some idiot mention that become he is a canadian that mean he isn't guilty of that trade is stupidity. the British the french, spain and portugal was the nation mostly involve in that trade. isn't canada a colony of france and england so how come this idiot is not involve. well dean we have to agree because that so simple. am not accussing any one for the slave trade . my oppinion is we should forget about the pass, should we still bringing attrocity of the greck empower or the roman empower no: but a white guys said he isn't guilty is racist to me. so that why I adress you Dean believe that you ain't racist but this idiot am done with him. his comment are very racist.

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By PATRICK PETION on June 03, 2011 at 11:49 am

when the british abolish slavery the portugese who were the main slavers were not obligated to abide by british law. is that guy for real. as a black man from the caraibean I personally take offense for this idiot racist talk. in one way he call all black stupid, he really mean that we have no knowledge of the pass he become very ; the french abolish slavery, then decade after the british follow, if am right the british were one of the last to abolish slavery. but now the british were the savior of the black race. this is very insulting,

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:14 pm

Garry Crystal

As you can see the confusion and the heat from the emotions that expands all round this subject obviously makes for a volatile subject, it is easy to loss control and not accomplish that which was originally intended.

Thank you, I appreaciate your comment .

Credo

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By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:29 pm

PATRICK PETION

The intensity of this subject is the reason it becomes so difficult to discuss, and we usually lose ourselves to the harsh waves of emotion that is so prevalent when ever we speak about such issues of the past. Especially issues that hurt, I try to remain focus but I also fail. I do appreciate your participation in this discussion, it is one that we will be speaking about for a long time judging by this confusion.

Credo

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By Theresa H Hall on June 03, 2011 at 01:35 pm

All slavery is inhumane and morally indecent. What a tragedy for those poor souls forced to endure being at the mercy of such fiends. Brutality be gone!

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By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 04:19 pm

Let me pose a general question, why are we arguing over how many people were subjected to brutality and death during this horrendous period of history? As I tried to suggest previously, the kind of actions are abhhorrent regardless of how many they were inflicted upon. This will not change which ever assertion or estimate may ultimately be proven most accurate.

And let me make a general suggestion, the discussion is worthwhile, but let us try to state our points and present our arguments without insulting one another or demeaning each other's intelligence or skill. If we have good points to make, let them stand on their own. Though we may differ on this raging discussion, we need not disparage any of the participants.

Think of the service Credo has done for us all by raising such a provocative topic to which so many have contributed their perspectives. For the sake of the thoughtful community of thinkers, writers and learners we are trying to build and sustain, let us treat one another with genuine civility.

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 12:31 am

Theresa H Hall

It would have been wonderful if people could have come together like this but on a more positive note.

Nevertheless please allow me the honor of thanking you for participating in this discussion, I believe that harmony will never be reached on the topic of discussion but at least we're all talking.

Credo

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 12:35 am

Caballero_69

What do you think about all of this? Saving the trees to spite the forest, Is it worth it?

Credo

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 01:16 am

HurricaneDean

Forgive me for not responding to your comment, there were so many comments I overlooked yours. However I do appreciate your response to this article.

Thanks

Credo

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 01:19 am

Anastasia

Horror is difficult to imagine.

Thank you for your participation

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 06:52 am

Credo,

Yes, when the trees loom so large, the forest may be bulldozed before its magnificence is appreciated.

Also, let me modify Teresa's comment to add my own, "please accept my thanks for precipitating this discussion." You have done us a true service; some will acknowledge and acclaim this others will not.

My sense is you strive to speak the truth and let others make of it what they will.

Thank you again for your provocative, profound, and much needed prolamation of this brutal truth "the color issue was always a momentous issue".

Believe me when I say, If America is to become the nation I believe it might and ought to be, all of us of whatever shape or shade must face this fact and transform it into an historical curiosity. For my part, I believe the 14th Amendment was done to liberate, not dominate, people of color. The follow through on this was abysmal, but the clear language confers "privileges and immunities" upon every human being born in the United States. It aimed to reverse the odious Scott v Sanford decision and assert that "members of the Negor race" did indeed have rights that white men were bound to respect. I say it is high time and past that we do so in all instances and circumstances.

Based on my personal experience with brothers from other mothers, I know without question that courage, commitment, and honor know no color line. Neither should any of us who claim the title American. If we are to be true to our founding documents and the truths they contain, if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

I can only murmur, Let it be!

Caballero_69

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 08:27 am

Black people at the time were not cognizant of their stake in America after slavery, they existed as second class citizens pursuant to the 14th Amendment. They couldn’t without proper education (which would have made them able to read, thus qualifying them as Sui Juris-sound individuals enabling them to understand and handle their own affairs) comprehend the dogmatic nature of their new found citizenship. The vagueness of this new system and relationship that occurred between government and ex-slaves were extravagant to conceive but it held many unlearn secrets in toe for years. Blacks receive a negative kind of justice a repugnant course of action which is inherently seen in our court system as opposed to whites who have generally gotten a constitutional kind of justice a more secure trial, and this is because of a dual citizenship status that was established by our government through the 14th Amendment. Everyone knew of this status and what it actually meant for black people except black folk, but what they (White America) didn't understand at that time was that this Amendment would eventually rope them in as serfdom's and economic slaves of that same system, a system which no one had spoken out against when black people were suffering from its many abusive actions against them. Legal professionals have understood that the officially authorized connotation that the 14th Amendment suggest had revealed a politically strategic maneuver that sort to undermine and subvert the nature of the American citizenry. They knew that because of this claim by the government to grant citizen status to the Negro the implications of such a created privilege would sooner or later surmount to a new form of slavery for the entire American system. Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Said to be Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” As you can clearly see in the context of the 14th Amendment the expressed implication of “all persons born” which defines white Americans as well as blacks as their freedmen/federal citizens, secretly casting them as 14th Amendment citizens who are now subject to the jurisdiction of the feds. And if you have obtained any voluntary contracts (SS cards, W4 form etc) with them (the feds) you are now a tax payer. Black people did not agree or ask to be citizens or subjects under someone else's jurisdiction; coming from overt slavery Blacks were always objects, property and subject to the slave master's jurisdictions, they who were distraught by the plight of slavery only sort after freedom and the cause of their creator. Blacks have been lead into this ambush (covert slavery) by another false treaty, they did not ask to be Americans because they were already Africans, and furthermore did not seek permission to be free for they sort only God's authorization to be who they were. It became obvious that they (the government) were complicit and cooperative in the scam to control the masses especially the Black mass, who were said to be only 12% of the population. Why was such a small group compared to the 88% of the population considered such a threat to them? What are they afraid of? Any human rights issues that were actively gained under this party or working within any party for that fact never actually lasted and therefore never truly existed. If in fact God endowed every man with unalienable rights (God given fundamental rights belonging to people, which can not be GIVEN NOR TAKEN away by the government. They always leave out given in this definition), with life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, an unflinching, unchanging, immovable stone of characteristics, then we wouldn't ever need nor would we require a legislation of such a process (the 14th Amendment), nor would we need a mandate giving us permission to be free and subject to white political jurisdictions, they never would have given blacks such freedom unless that freedom was controlled and covertly manipulated. If the government was truly seeking the freedom of Black people then they would have incorporated them into the constitution instead of creating their slave citizen by way of government proxy (the government stood in for God to give Blacks what appeared to be their rights from God, instead gave them privileges from the Government/the earthly God ), you must see the implications by now, White men were in dowered with inalienable rights that originated from God and from the constitution, and blacks derived their privileges (not God given rights) from the jurisdictions of the federal government who (who now became) were the dictators and new masters of the slave race. Blacks had been handed from one slave master to the another slave master as a punishment against the southern slave masters who were unwilling to join the union (thus the civil war). (the “Slave Race” (see SLAUGHTER-HOUSE CASES, 83 U.S. 36 (1872), U.S. Supreme Court BELL v. MARYLAND, 378 U.S. 226 (1964) with emphasis added) No one was talking about it but they all knew, the slave master knew, the government officials, and today's leaders have recognized what the 14th Amendment was actually initiated for (and it was not to free the slaves, but to enslave them under a forced citizenship). This quasi relationship between the government and its newly created FREEMAN (this word was used in several court cases SLAUGHTER-HOUSE CASES, 83 U.S. 36 {1872} STRAUDER v. WEST VIRGINIA) signified the black slaves who were now 14th Amendment entities as opposed to a free man who were white constitutional citizens, having natural God given rights) by way of the 14th Amendment has inadvertently opened up the doors to the income tax invasion as it has allowed the establishment a private contract of requisition as they misappropriate funds from what ever source derived. The insinuation (now created by the 14th Amendment) was that no one in the united states was exempted from the income tax system. Most of us feel that we are cheating our system and the rest of our fellow citizens if we don't pay income taxes, and they further believe that the income tax goes to pay for many of the things that we need, neither is true. It is of great concern that you realize that all of us pay taxes even if we all don't support or don't pay the income tax system, we pay taxes when we buy, sale, save, travel, we pay poll tax, gift tax, property tax, State tax, FICA tax, City tax, and a surcharge, and then some. Who says that we don't pay taxes? The income tax has made slaves of us all and that would include the north and the south.

This information is from one f my articles called “From Slavery to Death and Taxes”,

I tweaked it some what but it shows that the 14th Amendment was a covert means to create tax payers of the slaves or transforming the then considered property of the states citizen (the white state side slave owners) into government citizens who as such would be susceptible to federal income taxes. From property to citizens of the federal government, thus the title “From Slavery to Death and Taxes.

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 08:52 am

Credo,

This is the most original reading of the Fourteenth Amendment, it has ever been my pleasure to read. Although I have heard some similar perspectives expressed by people who to my eyes at least looked white.

I, as you may suspect, regard the history of this nation somewhat differently though not by any means incompatibly with much of your view. I have read of numerous instances in times of crisis where Black people have asserted their pride in being Americans and their hope that they finally and fully be recognized and treated as such. I share this information, but right at this moment cannot offer citations.

For my part, I am not only willing, but proud to be a citizen of the Republic. I find that to be an honor and a call to fulfill the plain language of the various documents related to the Republic's founding. I recognize and regret that for centruies We Who Believe In Freedom have not been able to put our beliefs effectively into comprehensive practice.

So I will persevere in my advocacy and endeavor to make the promises and the purposes for which, I believe, the Republic was founded come to fruition in a bountiful politics of liberty, equality and prosperity for all.

Death will come when it comes and as to taxes, I pay mine without a qualm, although I wish the current system [1] did not favor wealth over work, and [2] worked effeciently to enable a pay as one goes collection.

As ever,

Caballero

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By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 09:37 am

The subject of this article holds many important issues in which we should have been discussing as a nation. There is obviously greater issues at work here than what we have been talking about, we could be looking into the issue of the 14th amendment and its relationship to the Constitution if any, or we could be talking about how slavery has drastically challenged the fundamentals of humanity or the issues of reparations. Why is it (the political and judicial call for reparation for blacks) not seen by the political and judicial arena as a viable cause for blacks? Particularly since every other nationality has been granted a variant array of reparations for one thing or another. What has slavery really done to this nation of mixed souls, how has it corrupted the minds and spirit of the nation, will we survive the challenges that has and seems to frequent this nations due to the repetitiveness of slavery and racism.

Caballero

Thank you for opening up this gate of disccussion to one of the greater issues that we should be commenting on. The issues of slavery blankets many different issues that we will eventually have to talk about so that we understand that they exist, and by doing this we retain the possibility of noetically curing ourselves.

Credo

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By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 09:45 am

Credo,

Truer words have rarely been spoken here or anywhere else.

The truth will set us all free if we have the courage and commitment to look for and the honor and integrity to act upon it once it is found.

Thank you again for raising the issue and sounding the call to make this search and keep faith with those who have fallen.

We will be judged in the end by the faith that we keep.

As ever,

Caballero

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By Credo on September 09, 2013 at 03:29 pm

Caballero_69Since the time you posted your comment on this article, I had always thought to thank you for your commentary. However somehow I completely overlooked my responsibility.Forgive me for my lack of duty, and allow me the honor of thanking you at this late date.:)Credo

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By Credo on October 20, 2013 at 06:53 pm

By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:08 pmSeeing as you quoted me from another article I will respond to this one as well...you seem to have a propensity for emotional exaggeration...as I said in the other thread:"Yes...American slavery was an anomaly...in that it was exceedingly cruel, and racism and hatred was fostered by those in the slave trade"I am not arguing over the cruelty of ' American ' slavery...or the exploitation of Europeans of the very well established slave trade in Africa by Africans and Arabs...there is no doubt that the sheer magnitude and experience is unprecedented in human history...what I argued then as with now are your facts...such as the 100 million you apparently pulled out of a hat...it is estimated that 12-14 million slaves were brought to the Americas, the vast majority of them to South America, less than 800,000 were transported to the US.This does not negate the magnitude of the tragedy...even one slave is one too many...but you destroy any hope of rational debate or reason when you exaggerate or misrepresent facts in an otherwise very good article. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:18 pmThank you TheTAZZone for your input, I always appreciate the opinions of others. However it is infinitely clear that we will never see the same horizon on this issue.As always:Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:28 pmWe will never see eye to eye in your eyes on this issue because you can't differentiate between what I agree with, with what I don't agree with...whereas I see it as being more in agreement than disagreement...Americans ( exceptions always apply ) rarely can be objective about racism and slavery, you have a ' vested interest ' in seeing things your way...as an outsider to ' American Slavery ' I have no vested interest...thus there is nothing to prevent me from being objective. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 12:40 pmCredo,"There was no governable system which accounted for the millions of persons that died." This is the unvarnished truth. It must be remembered that most scholars believe a reasonable estimate is that as many died during the middle passage as survived to reach the Americas. Also, a trip in which only 25% died was considered a success. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that millions died.Additionally, compare to the better documented Holocaust in Europe under the Nazis rule, those people who were found alive in the death camps were still the victims of atrocity. The same is true of the captive Africans who landed in the Americas only to be thrown into enslavement.With this greivous injustice blighting our background, a courageous, conscious, continuing effort will be needed to help all our brothers and sisters rise to the high ground of mutual regard and genuine benevolence.It is time for us to join hands and move on up!Larry Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:49 pmHi TheTAZZoneI believe your form of critic is nonobjective but I honor it;After going through the motions of reciprocally disagreeing on so many points it becomes unproductive to continue such a debate. However I have no bias against Canadians, if you believe that I do simply because I mentioned two forms of sports in my previous article I am sorry for your misconception.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:54 pmCaballero_69Thank you for your comment.Hard subject, emotionally charged and most run from it.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:59 pmYou can believe whatever you'd like, that's the beauty of one's own mind...and if you concluded that my response/s were based upon some offense taken about you mentioning hockey I think my points went in one ear and immediately existed the other one.Suffice it to say I agree with far more of your points than those very few I disagree with. I'll assume from this point on that you only want people who agree with everything you say to comment on your articles.If I find one that I agree with 100% I'll let you know. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 01:08 pmI assume that's your objective analysis.OKCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 01:57 pm"btw, you men can argue over numbers to your heart's content, but I'll tell you as a woman, even treating ONE other human being like this is sufficient to qualify that person as a monster."And I said that..."This does not negate the magnitude of the tragedy...even one slave is one too many"But the fact remains that in 1600 the entire population of Africa was 100 million, including Arabs...so it would be virtually impossible, even with population growth over the following 400 years, to have removed 100 million people from Africa. This is exactly what I mean by exaggerating the facts. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 02:02 pmCredo,Integrity is tell ourselves the truth; honesty is telling the truth to others.In these exchanges, you have done both.As you say, this is a charged subject. It stalks our past and roams our present like a ferocious dragon. We must face it down and make the fury power our drive for a world where such things are inconceivable . The good news, such as it is, is we do not have to do this alone.We are together, not alone. When we can't go on, we can take the held held out by a brother [or a sister]. Each can do what each can; everyone can lend a heart and a hand!Carry it On!Larry Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:13 pmMelody J HaislipIt's heart wrenching, and as a nation we are not able to overcome the mental devastation that it has left behind.Thank you, I appreciate your comment.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:22 pmCaballero_69The larger issue is never really consulted in forums like this, because of such an emotionally charged subject as this we generally deliberate out of emotion. If the simple things can take us so far off course, what hope do we have of solving the greater issues?ThanksCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 02:34 pm"We should not quibble about small details"Come now Cher...is America so whipped and guilt-ridden that this subject is too taboo to debate over ' facts '? That you might be perceived as a racist if you question anything?You might want to change your motto from America the Brave to America the I'm so guilty about this that I'm afraid to question it :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 02:36 pmSorry...but I'm not an American...I'm a Canadian...so I don't have any guilty feelings about American slavery...and I don't feel i have to be sweet and kind and gentle to American perceptions of their history. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:42 pmAskcherlockYou know; people may not recognize the pain of this subject for blacks, it is probably just as difficult for me to write about this issue as it is for many others to read and hear about it. My averment over this issue is much greater than the statistics of the matter, and I do apologize, but slavery, racism and the long held silence of these issues is such an affront to the future prosperity and equality that should have been natural and present around the globe.I hope you except my most modest thanksCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 0By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:50 amthe Tazzone this is not American history, it always amaze me when people try to present the slave trade as an American deal. that is so far from the truth. the trade start in the early 15 and 16 century by the european contry such as french, england, portugal, spain. didn't you know that. The US as a nation never participate in the slave trade as George W Bush had mention in his book. by the time he US become a nation slavery was already abolish by the british and the french decade before the brith. so if you know anything about history you will know and undestand eenthought US have a great number of black slave back when they became a free nation. but US is not a slave nation. in no way the nation could said free all your slaves, we see what happen about 100 year later when the north thing it was time to free all black. it wasn t simple. if the 14 state had deal with that subject the day after independence day, the US as we know it will not be here. so Tazzone get your fact right. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 0By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:58 amand by the way the french had the caraibean and loiusiana , while the english used south of the united state and the caraibean to have their slaves. so your statement am not an american am a canadian i dont have any guilty feelings about american slavery is so stupid and show how uninform you are. as a french or english your people had participate in the slaves trades you should be a shame of yourself, it is time to clean yourself from the blood you have in your soul. stop saying you did not participate or have nothing to do with slavery. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 08:00 amin Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 08:19 amCan you write English Patrick? Readable English? And I've read your articles and your bouts with Dean and I have to say that it's like arguing with a teenager...maybe when you finish school and have a better grasp of the English language and what you're talking about we can continue this conversation. :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 08:39 amCanada never participated in the slave trade...there were 1400 slaves in Canada owned by the French, Native Canadians ( who had a long history of slave trading ), and British Loyalists ( Americans relocating to Canada and bringing their slaves with them )...at the same time Africans attended our Universities, ran businesses, and freed American slaves. In fact the reason the Underground Railroad became such a success was because of a runaway American slave who killed his owner who was pursuing him managed to make it to Canada, the US demanded that he be extradited and we almost went to war over it because our Supreme Court said that self-defense was not a crime in Canada for a black or white man...therefore he committed no crime in Canada and would not be extradited to the US.When news of this reached America slaves flocked to Canda in droves. A very prominant former American Slave ( who raised funds for the underground Railroad all over the World at the time ) once said when asked if racism existed in Canada...' It does exist, as it exists everywhere, there is no excaping it; however i have never seen black pews and white pews in church, white and black men sit together; nor have I ever seen that a black man receives less justice in a Canadian Court, we own land, have businesses, and conduct our affairs; yes, racism exists in Canada, as in all places, but it does not prevent us from progressing as a people. '( not a direct quote, as it's been several years since I thoroughly researched the subject ) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:42 pm"Tazz's Canada above story is very interesting. I've not heard that one before and would love to know the source."I wish i could provide them, but unfortunately it was a very long time ago I studied this subject, and am working from a tired memory :DAmong my studies I spent a great deal of time researching letters, newspapers, books, etc... written by black Canadians of the period to get their take on the situation.I should note that American slaves that came to Canada were expected to take care of themselves like everyone else, there was no free ride on the gravy train, several white and black supporters donated funds and raised funds to assist them but there was no dole out by the Government like there is today for immigrants.Canada has always been a haven...for slaves, for war dissenters, for Aboriginals, etc...Sitting Bull, and other Aboriginals, ran to Canada too...but again there was no free ride. Once he got to Canada and was free, his realized he couldn't feed his people, and eventually succumbed to taking an offer to return to America.The predoninate slave traders in Canada were Native Canadians who traded in slaves as far south as Texas, and were the primary owners of the few black slaves in Canada.It's a very interesting subject of two very different histories.There's a saying I used to say tongue-in-cheek...' Where does the World go to be free...America!...but where do Americans go to be free?...Canada ' :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:59 pm"ship carried betweeen 110 to 160 slaves"A typical ship could carry about 400 and some were maxed out at 600, but this is another point I was trying to make about Credo's exaggerations...slavery was powered by ' economics '...as horrifying as some ships likely were, it doesn't make sense to me that they would purchase slaves ( for instance ) at the port of Senegal and then toss their ' profit cargo ' overboard...Credo's assessment is probably right in some cases but I hardly think it was the norm, seeing as it makes no economic sense to have half your cargo die en route to your payoff.They had to buy these slaves and then transport them for resale. So they would want most of their cargo to survive and in good enough shape to sell for the highest dollar. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:59 pmThose figures of 400 and 600 includes the crew. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 07:05 pm- They had to buy these slaves and then transport them for resale. So they would want most of their cargo to survive and in good enough shape to sell for the highest dollar. -They wouldn't want to show up at a port in America with half the cargo they left with and the rest too emaciated to sell.That just doesn't make any sense. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Anastasia on June 02, 2011 at 07:15 pmThe horror is difficult to imagine. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 02, 2011 at 08:39 pmWhile there is some room argument over statistics and specifics, it is undeniable that the Maafa inflicted excruciating suffering and grotesque indignities on hundreds of thousands of human beings through abduction, enslavement, imperialistic colonization, dehumanization, oppression and exploitation. It also cannot be denied that academic and social factors and forces have categorized Africans into color labels and relegated many of them explicitly and almost all of them implicitly into economic, social, political, and legal disenfranchisement with continuing manifestations in contemporary societies.Recognizing this as a genuine Holocaust perpetrated over centuries does not reveal an enervating, reflexive guilt complex. It simply shows a willingness to recognize a glaring example of “man’s inhumanity to man.” The fact that we are all demonstrably human is no guarantee that we are all authentically humane.No living North American bears any guilt for atrocities committed in past decades let alone those perpetrated in past centuries. On the other hand, every living North American should be candid enough to recognize the monstrous dimensions of this catastrophe and regret its occurrence. Furthermore, American citizens have a profound, patriotic obligation to rise up and live out the true meaning of the Republic’s creed. We are honor bound to join hands and work together to counteract the continuing toxic effects of these deplorable practices. If we are to be as good as our words, we must bind up the psychic wounds of our sisters and brothers and achieve a just and lasting peace among ourselves. Then, we must go forth to lead the land we love toward genuine liberty, equality, and prosperity for all as one people in one nation indivisible.Deep in my heart, I do believe we shall overcome someday! Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 09:39 pm"While there is some room argument over statistics and specifics, it is undeniable that the Maafa inflicted excruciating suffering and grotesque indignities on hundreds of thousands of human beings through abduction, enslavement, imperialistic colonization, dehumanization, oppression and exploitation."True! Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:59 am"Danimal 09-02-2001, 01:34 PMAsmany of you know, the Middle Passage refers to the routes across the Atlantic that the slave ships took while delivering Africans from the Guinea Coast to Brazil, the Caribbean, and continental North America. The pain, humiliation, and deadliness of this voyage to the Africans packed like sardines in the disease-ridden ships' holds are now legendary. However, the sources I have found disagree hugely as to how many people actually made this brutal trip and how many were killed by the voyage.Nine million Africans made the passage, and one million of them (c. 11%) died en route. So says John Reader in Africa: A Biography of the Continent.15% to 25% of the slaves died in the Middle Passage. So says Dale Taylor in The Writer's Guide to Everyday Life in Colonial America.24 million Africans made the Middle Passage, and 9 million (c. 38%) died en route. So says Richard Armstrong in The Merchantmen.25 to 50 million Africans died in the Middle Passage. So says The Middle Passage Institute (http://www.tmpf.org/history.htm).30 to 60 million Africans made the Middle Passage, and 67%(20 to 40 million) died en route. So says Dr. John Henrick Clarke (http://www.juneteenth.com/middlep.htm).Good grief, people! The number of deportations and deaths from the slave trade probably isn't as meticulously well-documented as, say, the carnage of the Holocaust. But when the figures disagree by a whole friggin' order of magnitude, somebody's gotten sloppy! Which of these figures are supported by real data and scholarship, and which figures are the writers pulling out of their behinds?"Read more at http://www.broowaha.com/articles/9675/slave-ships-and-the-middle-passage#wmiEEAA4c8AJfUam.99 Read this athttp://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/archive/index.php/t-85026.htmlCredoBy TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 01:21 am"Which of these figures are supported by real data and scholarship, and which figures are the writers pulling out of their behinds?"Well...the figures that best represent the numbers is, as I said, 12-14 million, with possibly another 10%-25% dying en route...more than that much of a loss of cargo would seriously jeopardize their profit margin...they weren't running slaves to break even or to make a few extra bucks...this still makes the slave trade the worst period of our history and a disgusting reminder of how cruel man can be at his worst. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 01:30 amAll of these figures are estimations, because they were not backed up by solid data as there were limited records kept by the captains or the crew. Although profit was the main focus of the journey it wasn't the only consideration that determined the death toll of the slaves. there were countless ships which slaughtered 100% of their slaves in order to escape the police ships that patrolled the seas looking for pirate ships that disobeyed the abolition against slavery once slavery became illegal.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 06:22 amWhen the British abolished slavery the Portugese, who were the main slavers, were not obligated to abide by British law, nor would the British patrol Portugese ships, or any ships by Nations other than British ships.Were there some ' British pirate ships ' disobeying British law? Sure. Did some toss their cargo, like the common drug runners of today, to avoid penalty? Sure.But at 400-600 capacity per slave ship including crew, plus the number of ships the Brits could even dedicate to the effort of catching them, the number of ships caught and the number of people killed and tossed overboard would not be in the 10's of millions.Common sense tells us....that if it doesn't make sense it likely isn't true.For the Brits who were policing slavery ( the good guys ), to effect the numbers of dropped cargo by slave ships ( the bad guys ) you are suggesting, almost the entire British fleet would have had to be involved. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 06:59 amMany countries participated in the slave trade, British ships were only one aspect of that movement.“the Brits who were policing slavery ( the good guys ) ”Strange that you would call the British 'the good guys”most of the profits from slavery and the initial reasons for slavery was largely due to the BritsYou can research this sorted but detailed information on-line, however here is a hyperlink to such informationhttp://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_45.html“To start with, British traders supplied slaves for the Spanish and Portuguese colonists in America. However, as British settlements in the Caribbean and North America grew, often through wars with European countries such as Holland, Spain and France, British slave traders increasingly supplied British coloniesThe exact number of British ships that took part in the Slave Trade will probably never be known but, in the 245 years between Hawkins first voyage and the abolition of the Slave Trade in 1807, merchants in Britain dispatched about 10,000 voyages to Africa for slaves, with merchants in other parts of the British Empire perhaps fitting out a further 1,150 voyages.Historian, Professor David Richardson, has calculated that British ships carried 3.4 million or more enslaved Africans to the Americas.”The first record of enslaved Africans being landed in the British colony of Virginia was in 1619. Barbados became the first British settlement in the Caribbean in 1625 and the British took control of Jamaica in 1655.The establishment of the Royal African Company in 1672 formalized the Slave Trade under a royal charter and gave a monopoly to the port of London. The ports of Bristol and Liverpool, in particular, lobbied to have the charter changed and, in 1698, the monopoly was taken away."Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 07:18 am"Strange that you would call the British 'the good guys”"Strange that you can't comprehend that it was a reference to those ' preventing slavey and trying to enforce the new legislation 'as opposed to those running slaves...which should have been obvious, for someone capable of reading ' in context '. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 07:22 am"to escape the police ships that patrolled the seas looking for pirate ships that disobeyed the abolition against slavery once slavery became illegal"You really do need to learn to read ' in context '...my post was realted to your post, and more specifically this quote. People who are not able to read or comprehend ' context ' often make glaring errors and misrepresentations in interpretation. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 07:24 amOr...do you consider the ' police ships ' trying to enforce the legislation to be the ' bad guys ' too? Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 08:20 amThis article has generated a blizzard of commetary.So, I'll pitch in again.It seems to me that two related adages, God is in the detail and The Devil is in the details, are opposite ideas as God and the Devil are held to be. When God is in the detail, it suggests to me that fine details improve the whole. While The Devil in the details seems to imply that, the fine details detrimentally affect the whole. In this brouhaha [intense interest and excited exchange], I believe the Devil is at its mischievous best in this detail-based wrangle. How many deaths would it take until we knew that too many people had died? Are 1,000 enough, 100,000, 1,000,000, or 10,000,000?While it looks like objectivity to pursue a precise figure or a well-bounded estimate, this seems devilish to me. Let us see the forest regardless of the number of trees.If people of Jewish descent have a moral right and responsibility to themselves, their children, and the world, to inform and educate humanity about theHolocaust perpetrated by the Nazis, do not people of African descent have a similar right and responsibility to themselves, their children, and the world regarding theMaafa? The visual force of the Holocaust Museum has a significant impact on those who visit it. It is the right and responsibility Jewish people to create and sustain a living testimony to the horrors of the Holocaust so that the world will never forget what happened and we all resolve so much pain and death will not recur. Would this be any less the case if documents indicated one million Jews and other minorities suffered died at the hands of the Nazis and their henchmen rather than the generally accepted six million? I think not.Can anyone seriously dispute the adverse impacts of the atrocities inflicted on the European Jews linger to some extent in persons of Jewish descent in the present day? Can anyone effectively argue that the key issue is not what was done, but to how many was it done? I doubt it.If millions of Africans experienced horrendous deaths and depraved brutality at the hands of their captors, jailers, overseers, masters and others as it is known they did, would not a Maafa Museum be appropriate? I think so. Can anyone honestly refute the contention that the toxic effects of these depredations pollute the lives of many people of African heritage even in the present? I doubt this as well.Marcus Garvey, known as the Father of Black Consciousness, asserted, “If we as a people realized the greatness from which we came, we would be less likely to disrespect ourselves.” I would modify this to assert, If we as Americans, of every shade and shape, realized the greatness to which we are called by our most fundamental civic ideals, we would be less likely to disrespect one another. Repeatedly, in the history of the Republic, Americans of African descent have responded to suggestions, offers, and inducements to abandon the land for resettlement in Africa with the declaration “We are Americans.” In every war this nation has fought, both the just and the predatory, citizens of African descent have taken up arms and lain down their lives for this country. In my own personal experience, a brave Black American died by my side while we defended the defenseless.The enormities of the pain wracked and blood soaked past cannot be undone. However, we the living, can highly resolve that those who suffered and died shall not have done so in vain. We can come together; we can struggle together; we can triumph together and realize the promise to which all Americans are heirs. If we realize that whatever our ethnic heritage may be, we share a civic heritage yet to be fully actualized and animated among us, we can grieve for the past together and strive for the future side by side. Let us begin. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 08:21 amFor some reason, I could not get the bold off the bulk of this comment. It was supposed to be written in plain text. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 08:49 amTheTAZZoneI don't consider nor do I believe that many blacks would consider the British Empire to be good, they have prospered off of the backs of the slaves and have not restored or paid back what they have gained as a result of such inhumane activities. Their position to abolish slavery and to port some ships in that duty isn't enough to fashion them as good, in a large sense they were part of the larger problem in the establishment of slavery. Your constant insults is not a good sign of your internal intentions concerning this article. If you want people to get a better understanding of your side of the equation and view point it will not be at the barrel of your constant verbal guns that you wheel each time your are annoyed. Try to reason with a little consideration and forbearance.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 08:51 amCaballero_69As always it is my pleasure to witness your commentariesCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By PATRICK PETION on June 03, 2011 at 11:33 amDean I never disagree with the fact that they were illegal slave trade. but my point is this idiot accussing the US as been a slave nation, which is completly faulse and at the same time he wrote: sorry i am a canadian not an American so i don't have any guilty feeling about American slavery. what a stupid statement, eventhought some was still illegally involve in the slave trade, but it has been abolish before the US become a nation. and every white person is gulty of that trade. I would argue their were few of them as jean jacques rousseau and sonthonax in france whom oppose of the slave trade. but some idiot mention that become he is a canadian that mean he isn't guilty of that trade is stupidity. the British the french, spain and portugal was the nation mostly involve in that trade. isn't canada a colony of france and england so how come this idiot is not involve. well dean we have to agree because that so simple. am not accussing any one for the slave trade . my oppinion is we should forget about the pass, should we still bringing attrocity of the greck empower or the roman empower no: but a white guys said he isn't guilty is racist to me. so that why I adress you Dean believe that you ain't racist but this idiot am done with him. his comment are very racist. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By PATRICK PETION on June 03, 2011 at 11:49 amwhen the british abolish slavery the portugese who were the main slavers were not obligated to abide by british law. is that guy for real. as a black man from the caraibean I personally take offense for this idiot racist talk. in one way he call all black stupid, he really mean that we have no knowledge of the pass he become very ; the french abolish slavery, then decade after the british follow, if am right the british were one of the last to abolish slavery. but now the british were the savior of the black race. this is very insulting, Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:14 pmGarry CrystalAs you can see the confusion and the heat from the emotions that expands all round this subject obviously makes for a volatile subject, it is easy to loss control and not accomplish that which was originally intended.Thank you, I appreaciate your comment .Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 03, 2011 at 12:29 pmPATRICK PETIONThe intensity of this subject is the reason it becomes so difficult to discuss, and we usually lose ourselves to the harsh waves of emotion that is so prevalent when ever we speak about such issues of the past. Especially issues that hurt, I try to remain focus but I also fail. I do appreciate your participation in this discussion, it is one that we will be speaking about for a long time judging by this confusion.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Theresa H Hall on June 03, 2011 at 01:35 pmAll slavery is inhumane and morally indecent. What a tragedy for those poor souls forced to endure being at the mercy of such fiends. Brutality be gone! Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 03:09 pmPatrick...as I said before, arguing with you I might as well be arguing with my 11 year old daughter...in fact my daughter could form a better argument and insult than you can :DGo back and play with your dolls and let the grownups discuss this matter. ( I kill myself :D ) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 03:15 pm"I don't consider nor do I believe that many blacks would consider the British Empire to be good,"Again, you need to read and comprehend in context...no one said the British Empire was good...or wasn't complicit in slavery...go back and read the posts ( both yours and mine ) and try to comprehend what was being said and in what context.I already explained it once...I won't bother explaining it again to someone incapable of comprehending ' context '. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Caballero_69 on June 03, 2011 at 04:19 pmLet me pose a general question, why are we arguing over how many people were subjected to brutality and death during this horrendous period of history? As I tried to suggest previously, the kind of actions are abhhorrent regardless of how many they were inflicted upon. This will not change which ever assertion or estimate may ultimately be proven most accurate.And let me make a general suggestion, the discussion is worthwhile, but let us try to state our points and present our arguments without insulting one another or demeaning each other's intelligence or skill. If we have good points to make, let them stand on their own. Though we may differ on this raging discussion, we need not disparage any of the participants.Think of the service Credo has done for us all by raising such a provocative topic to which so many have contributed their perspectives. For the sake of the thoughtful community of thinkers, writers and learners we are trying to build and sustain, let us treat one another with genuine civility. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 04:36 pmCabellero, we all agree that slavery was a disgusting blight on man's history, we all agree that the period between the 16th and 19th centuries was the worst of that blight, we all agree that racism exists ( in every culture, with people of all races ), we agree that man should evolve beyond the point of what should be antiquated mentalities...my only point of contention is and has been that when discussing these types of matters exaggeration hurts the cause or message one is trying to convey.For instance if we were discussing the Japanese constriction of over 400,000 Korean women into prostitution for Japanese soldiers, to exaggerate the claim to be 4 million hurts the credibility of the cause.Or, the other way, for instance if we were discussing the Holocaust and someone claimed there was only 60,000 Jews killed, exaggeration in reverse hurts the credibility of the author.From an historical and educational perspective numbers and facts do matter...otherwise we might as well go willy-nilly and say that 17 billion people died during slave trading, and 400 million Korean women were raped by the Japanese, and 600 zillion Jews were gassed.After all...it's not important to get our facts and numbers straight...right? ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 04:43 pmThe way I see it the purpose of these types of articles is to ' educate '...and you can't properly ' educate ' people by lying to them or misleading them.Get all your ducks in a row...so that you're ' educating ' people not misinforming them. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 03, 2011 at 05:17 pmWe should have the same consistant problem with those who claim that 600,000 Jews were gassed as with those who claim 60 million were gassed...we should have the same consistant problem with those who claim that 40,000 Korean women were raped as those who claim 4 million were raped...we should have the same consistant problem with those who claim that 50,000 slaves were taken to the America's as those who claim 100 million were...the distortion of history to make a period or event seem larger or smaller than it actually was is NOT education...it's misinformation. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 12:31 amTheresa H HallIt would have been wonderful if people could have come together like this but on a more positive note.Nevertheless please allow me the honor of thanking you for participating in this discussion, I believe that harmony will never be reached on the topic of discussion but at least we're all talking.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 12:35 amCaballero_69What do you think about all of this? Saving the trees to spite the forest, Is it worth it?Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 01:16 amHurricaneDeanForgive me for not responding to your comment, there were so many comments I overlooked yours. However I do appreciate your response to this article.ThanksCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 01:19 amAnastasiaHorror is difficult to imagine.Thank you for your participationCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 06:52 amCredo,Yes, when the trees loom so large, the forest may be bulldozed before its magnificence is appreciated.Also, let me modify Teresa's comment to add my own, "please accept my thanks for precipitating this discussion." You have done us a true service; some will acknowledge and acclaim this others will not.My sense is you strive to speak the truth and let others make of it what they will.Thank you again for your provocative, profound, and much needed prolamation of this brutal truth "the color issue was always a momentous issue".Read more at http://www.broowaha.com/articles/9675/slave-ships-and-the-middle-passage#wmiEEAA4c8AJfUam.99 Credo,Yes, when the trees loom so large, the forest may be bulldozed before its magnificence is appreciated.Also, let me modify Teresa's comment to add my own, "please accept my thanks for precipitating this discussion." You have done us a true service; some will acknowledge and acclaim this others will not.My sense is you strive to speak the truth and let others make of it what they will.Thank you again for your provocative, profound, and much needed prolamation of this brutal truth "the color issue was always a momentous issue".Believe me when I say, If America is to become the nation I believe it might and ought to be, all of us of whatever shape or shade must face this fact and transform it into an historical curiosity. For my part, I believe the 14th Amendment was done to liberate, not dominate, people of color. The follow through on this was abysmal, but the clear language confers "privileges and immunities" upon every human being born in the United States. It aimed to reverse the odious Scott v Sanford decision and assert that "members of the Negor race" did indeed have rights that white men were bound to respect. I say it is high time and past that we do so in all instances and circumstances.Based on my personal experience with brothers from other mothers, I know without question that courage, commitment, and honor know no color line. Neither should any of us who claim the title American. If we are to be true to our founding documents and the truths they contain, if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.I can only murmur, Let it be!Caballero_69 Report abuseRead more at http://www.broowaha.com/articles/9675/slave-ships-and-the-middle-passage#wmiEEAA4c8AJfUam.99 CREDOBlack people at the time were not cognizant of their stake in America after slavery, they existed as second class citizens pursuant to the 14th Amendment. They couldn’t without proper education (which would have made them able to read, thus qualifying them as Sui Juris-sound individuals enabling them to understand and handle their own affairs) comprehend the dogmatic nature of their new found citizenship. The vagueness of this new system and relationship that occurred between government and ex-slaves were extravagant to conceive but it held many unlearn secrets in toe for years. Blacks receive a negative kind of justice a repugnant course of action which is inherently seen in our court system as opposed to whites who have generally gotten a constitutional kind of justice a more secure trial, and this is because of a dual citizenship status that was established by our government through the 14th Amendment. Everyone knew of this status and what it actually meant for black people except black folk, but what they (White America) didn't understand at that time was that this Amendment would eventually rope them in as serfdom's and economic slaves of that same system, a system which no one had spoken out against when black people were suffering from its many abusive actions against them. Legal professionals have understood that the officially authorized connotation that the 14th Amendment suggest had revealed a politically strategic maneuver that sort to undermine and subvert the nature of the American citizenry. They knew that because of this claim by the government to grant citizen status to the Negro the implications of such a created privilege would sooner or later surmount to a new form of slavery for the entire American system. Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Said to be Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History ” All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” As you can clearly see in the context of the 14th Amendment the expressed implication of “all persons born” which defines white Americans as well as blacks as their freedmen/federal citizens, secretly casting them as 14th Amendment citizens who are now subject to the jurisdiction of the feds. And if you have obtained any voluntary contracts (SS cards, W4 form etc) with them (the feds) you are now a tax payer. Black people did not agree or ask to be citizens or subjects under someone else's jurisdiction; coming from overt slavery Blacks were always objects, property and subject to the slave master's jurisdictions, they who were distraught by the plight of slavery only sort after freedom and the cause of their creator. Blacks have been lead into this ambush (covert slavery) by another false treaty, they did not ask to be Americans because they were already Africans, and furthermore did not seek permission to be free for they sort only God's authorization to be who they were. It became obvious that they (the government) were complicit and cooperative in the scam to control the masses especially the Black mass, who were said to be only 12% of the population. Why was such a small group compared to the 88% of the population considered such a threat to them? What are they afraid of? Any human rights issues that were actively gained under this party or working within any party for that fact never actually lasted and therefore never truly existed. If in fact God endowed every man with unalienable rights (God given fundamental rights belonging to people, which can not be GIVEN NOR TAKEN away by the government. They always leave out given in this definition), with life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, an unflinching, unchanging, immovable stone of characteristics, then we wouldn't ever need nor would we require a legislation of such a process (the 14th Amendment), nor would we need a mandate giving us permission to be free and subject to white political jurisdictions, they never would have given blacks such freedom unless that freedom was controlled and covertly manipulated. If the government was truly seeking the freedom of Black people then they would have incorporated them into the constitution instead of creating their slave citizen by way of government proxy (the government stood in for God to give Blacks what appeared to be their rights from God, instead gave them privileges from the Government/the earthly God ), you must see the implications by now, White men were in dowered with inalienable rights that originated from God and from the constitution, and blacks derived their privileges (not God given rights) from the jurisdictions of the federal government who (who now became) were the dictators and new masters of the slave race. Blacks had been handed from one slave master to the another slave master as a punishment against the southern slave masters who were unwilling to join the union (thus the civil war). (the “Slave Race” (see SLAUGHTER-HOUSE CASES, 83 U.S. 36 (1872), U.S. Supreme Court BELL v. MARYLAND, 378 U.S. 226 (1964) with emphasis added) No one was talking about it but they all knew, the slave master knew, the government officials, and today's leaders have recognized what the 14th Amendment was actually initiated for (and it was not to free the slaves, but to enslave them under a forced citizenship). This quasi relationship between the government and its newly created FREEMAN (this word was used in several court cases SLAUGHTER-HOUSE CASES, 83 U.S. 36 {1872} STRAUDER v. WEST VIRGINIA) signified the black slaves who were now 14th Amendment entities as opposed to a free man who were white constitutional citizens, having natural God given rights) by way of the 14th Amendment has inadvertently opened up the doors to the income tax invasion as it has allowed the establishment a private contract of requisition as they misappropriate funds from what ever source derived. The insinuation (now created by the 14th Amendment) was that no one in the united states was exempted from the income tax system. Most of us feel that we are cheating our system and the rest of our fellow citizens if we don't pay income taxes, and they further believe that the income tax goes to pay for many of the things that we need, neither is true. It is of great concern that you realize that all of us pay taxes even if we all don't support or don't pay the income tax system, we pay taxes when we buy, sale, save, travel, we pay poll tax, gift tax, property tax, State tax, FICA tax, City tax, and a surcharge, and then some. Who says that we don't pay taxes? The income tax has made slaves of us all and that would include the north and the south.This information is from one f my articles called “From Slavery to Death and Taxes”,I tweaked it some what but it shows that the 14th Amendment was a covert means to create tax payers of the slaves or transforming the then considered property of the states citizen (the white state side slave owners) into government citizens who as such would be susceptible to federal income taxes. From property to citizens of the federal government, thus the title “From Slavery to Death and Taxes.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 08:52 amCredo,This is the most original reading of the Fourteenth Amendment, it has ever been my pleasure to read. Although I have heard some similar perspectives expressed by people who to my eyes at least looked white.I, as you may suspect, regard the history of this nation somewhat differently though not by any means incompatibly with much of your view. I have read of numerous instances in times of crisis where Black people have asserted their pride in being Americans and their hope that they finally and fully be recognized and treated as such. I share this information, but right at this moment cannot offer citations.For my part, I am not only willing, but proud to be a citizen of the Republic. I find that to be an honor and a call to fulfill the plain language of the various documents related to the Republic's founding. I recognize and regret that for centruies We Who Believe In Freedom have not been able to put our beliefs effectively into comprehensive practice.So I will persevere in my advocacy and endeavor to make the promises and the purposes for which, I believe, the Republic was founded come to fruition in a bountiful politics of liberty, equality and prosperity for all.Death will come when it comes and as to taxes, I pay mine without a qualm, although I wish the current system [1] did not favor wealth over work, and [2] worked effeciently to enable a pay as one goes collection.As ever,Caballero Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 04, 2011 at 09:37 amThe subject of this article holds many important issues in which we should have been discussing as a nation. There is obviously greater issues at work here than what we have been talking about, we could be looking into the issue of the 14th amendment and its relationship to the Constitution if any, or we could be talking about how slavery has drastically challenged the fundamentals of humanity or the issues of reparations. Why is it (the political and judicial call for reparation for blacks) not seen by the political and judicial arena as a viable cause for blacks? Particularly since every other nationality has been granted a variant array of reparations for one thing or another. What has slavery really done to this nation of mixed souls, how has it corrupted the minds and spirit of the nation, will we survive the challenges that has and seems to frequent this nations due to the repetitiveness of slavery and racism.CaballeroThank you for opening up this gate of disccussion to one of the greater issues that we should be commenting on. The issues of slavery blankets many different issues that we will eventually have to talk about so that we understand that they exist, and by doing this we retain the possibility of noetically curing ourselves.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By Caballero_69 on June 04, 2011 at 09:45 amCredo,Truer words have rarely been spoken here or anywhere else.The truth will set us all free if we have the courage and commitment to look for and the honor and integrity to act upon it once it is found.Thank you again for raising the issue and sounding the call to make this search and keep faith with those who have fallen.We will be judged in the end by the faith that we keep.As ever,Caballero Report abuseBy TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:08 pmSeeing as you quoted me from another article I will respond to this one as well...you seem to have a propensity for emotional exaggeration...as I said in the other thread:"Yes...American slavery was an anomaly...in that it was exceedingly cruel, and racism and hatred was fostered by those in the slave trade"I am not arguing over the cruelty of ' American ' slavery...or the exploitation of Europeans of the very well established slave trade in Africa by Africans and Arabs...there is no doubt that the sheer magnitude and experience is unprecedented in human history...what I argued then as with now are your facts...such as the 100 million you apparently pulled out of a hat...it is estimated that 12-14 million slaves were brought to the Americas, the vast majority of them to South America, less than 800,000 were transported to the US.This does not negate the magnitude of the tragedy...even one slave is one too many...but you destroy any hope of rational debate or reason when you exaggerate or misrepresent facts in an otherwise very good article. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:18 pmThank you TheTAZZone for your input, I always appreciate the opinions of others. However it is infinitely clear that we will never see the same horizon on this issue.As always:Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:28 pmWe will never see eye to eye in your eyes on this issue because you can't differentiate between what I agree with, with what I don't agree with...whereas I see it as being more in agreement than disagreement...Americans ( exceptions always apply ) rarely can be objective about racism and slavery, you have a ' vested interest ' in seeing things your way...as an outsider to ' American Slavery ' I have no vested interest...thus there is nothing to prevent me from being objective. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 12:40 pmCredo,"There was no governable system which accounted for the millions of persons that died." This is the unvarnished truth. It must be remembered that most scholars believe a reasonable estimate is that as many died during the middle passage as survived to reach the Americas. Also, a trip in which only 25% died was considered a success. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that millions died.Additionally, compare to the better documented Holocaust in Europe under the Nazis rule, those people who were found alive in the death camps were still the victims of atrocity. The same is true of the captive Africans who landed in the Americas only to be thrown into enslavement.With this greivous injustice blighting our background, a courageous, conscious, continuing effort will be needed to help all our brothers and sisters rise to the high ground of mutual regard and genuine benevolence.It is time for us to join hands and move on up!Larry Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:49 pmHi TheTAZZoneI believe your form of critic is nonobjective but I honor it;After going through the motions of reciprocally disagreeing on so many points it becomes unproductive to continue such a debate. However I have no bias against Canadians, if you believe that I do simply because I mentioned two forms of sports in my previous article I am sorry for your misconception.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 12:54 pmCaballero_69Thank you for your comment.Hard subject, emotionally charged and most run from it.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 12:59 pmYou can believe whatever you'd like, that's the beauty of one's own mind...and if you concluded that my response/s were based upon some offense taken about you mentioning hockey I think my points went in one ear and immediately existed the other one.Suffice it to say I agree with far more of your points than those very few I disagree with. I'll assume from this point on that you only want people who agree with everything you say to comment on your articles.If I find one that I agree with 100% I'll let you know. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 01:08 pmI assume that's your objective analysis.OKCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 01:57 pm"btw, you men can argue over numbers to your heart's content, but I'll tell you as a woman, even treating ONE other human being like this is sufficient to qualify that person as a monster."And I said that..."This does not negate the magnitude of the tragedy...even one slave is one too many"But the fact remains that in 1600 the entire population of Africa was 100 million, including Arabs...so it would be virtually impossible, even with population growth over the following 400 years, to have removed 100 million people from Africa. This is exactly what I mean by exaggerating the facts. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Caballero_69 on June 01, 2011 at 02:02 pmCredo,Integrity is tell ourselves the truth; honesty is telling the truth to others.In these exchanges, you have done both.As you say, this is a charged subject. It stalks our past and roams our present like a ferocious dragon. We must face it down and make the fury power our drive for a world where such things are inconceivable . The good news, such as it is, is we do not have to do this alone.We are together, not alone. When we can't go on, we can take the held held out by a brother [or a sister]. Each can do what each can; everyone can lend a heart and a hand!Carry it On!Larry Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:13 pmMelody J HaislipIt's heart wrenching, and as a nation we are not able to overcome the mental devastation that it has left behind.Thank you, I appreciate your comment.Credo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 3By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:22 pmCaballero_69The larger issue is never really consulted in forums like this, because of such an emotionally charged subject as this we generally deliberate out of emotion. If the simple things can take us so far off course, what hope do we have of solving the greater issues?ThanksCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 02:34 pm"We should not quibble about small details"Come now Cher...is America so whipped and guilt-ridden that this subject is too taboo to debate over ' facts '? That you might be perceived as a racist if you question anything?You might want to change your motto from America the Brave to America the I'm so guilty about this that I'm afraid to question it :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 01, 2011 at 02:36 pmSorry...but I'm not an American...I'm a Canadian...so I don't have any guilty feelings about American slavery...and I don't feel i have to be sweet and kind and gentle to American perceptions of their history. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Credo on June 01, 2011 at 02:42 pmAskcherlockYou know; people may not recognize the pain of this subject for blacks, it is probably just as difficult for me to write about this issue as it is for many others to read and hear about it. My averment over this issue is much greater than the statistics of the matter, and I do apologize, but slavery, racism and the long held silence of these issues is such an affront to the future prosperity and equality that should have been natural and present around the globe.I hope you except my most modest thanksCredo Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 0By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:50 amthe Tazzone this is not American history, it always amaze me when people try to present the slave trade as an American deal. that is so far from the truth. the trade start in the early 15 and 16 century by the european contry such as french, england, portugal, spain. didn't you know that. The US as a nation never participate in the slave trade as George W Bush had mention in his book. by the time he US become a nation slavery was already abolish by the british and the french decade before the brith. so if you know anything about history you will know and undestand eenthought US have a great number of black slave back when they became a free nation. but US is not a slave nation. in no way the nation could said free all your slaves, we see what happen about 100 year later when the north thing it was time to free all black. it wasn t simple. if the 14 state had deal with that subject the day after independence day, the US as we know it will not be here. so Tazzone get your fact right. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 0By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 07:58 amand by the way the french had the caraibean and loiusiana , while the english used south of the united state and the caraibean to have their slaves. so your statement am not an american am a canadian i dont have any guilty feelings about american slavery is so stupid and show how uninform you are. as a french or english your people had participate in the slaves trades you should be a shame of yourself, it is time to clean yourself from the blood you have in your soul. stop saying you did not participate or have nothing to do with slavery. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By PATRICK PETION on June 02, 2011 at 08:00 amin Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 08:19 amCan you write English Patrick? Readable English? And I've read your articles and your bouts with Dean and I have to say that it's like arguing with a teenager...maybe when you finish school and have a better grasp of the English language and what you're talking about we can continue this conversation. :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 08:39 amCanada never participated in the slave trade...there were 1400 slaves in Canada owned by the French, Native Canadians ( who had a long history of slave trading ), and British Loyalists ( Americans relocating to Canada and bringing their slaves with them )...at the same time Africans attended our Universities, ran businesses, and freed American slaves. In fact the reason the Underground Railroad became such a success was because of a runaway American slave who killed his owner who was pursuing him managed to make it to Canada, the US demanded that he be extradited and we almost went to war over it because our Supreme Court said that self-defense was not a crime in Canada for a black or white man...therefore he committed no crime in Canada and would not be extradited to the US.When news of this reached America slaves flocked to Canda in droves. A very prominant former American Slave ( who raised funds for the underground Railroad all over the World at the time ) once said when asked if racism existed in Canada...' It does exist, as it exists everywhere, there is no excaping it; however i have never seen black pews and white pews in church, white and black men sit together; nor have I ever seen that a black man receives less justice in a Canadian Court, we own land, have businesses, and conduct our affairs; yes, racism exists in Canada, as in all places, but it does not prevent us from progressing as a people. '( not a direct quote, as it's been several years since I thoroughly researched the subject ) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:42 pm"Tazz's Canada above story is very interesting. I've not heard that one before and would love to know the source."I wish i could provide them, but unfortunately it was a very long time ago I studied this subject, and am working from a tired memory :DAmong my studies I spent a great deal of time researching letters, newspapers, books, etc... written by black Canadians of the period to get their take on the situation.I should note that American slaves that came to Canada were expected to take care of themselves like everyone else, there was no free ride on the gravy train, several white and black supporters donated funds and raised funds to assist them but there was no dole out by the Government like there is today for immigrants.Canada has always been a haven...for slaves, for war dissenters, for Aboriginals, etc...Sitting Bull, and other Aboriginals, ran to Canada too...but again there was no free ride. Once he got to Canada and was free, his realized he couldn't feed his people, and eventually succumbed to taking an offer to return to America.The predoninate slave traders in Canada were Native Canadians who traded in slaves as far south as Texas, and were the primary owners of the few black slaves in Canada.It's a very interesting subject of two very different histories.There's a saying I used to say tongue-in-cheek...' Where does the World go to be free...America!...but where do Americans go to be free?...Canada ' :D Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:59 pm"ship carried betweeen 110 to 160 slaves"A typical ship could carry about 400 and some were maxed out at 600, but this is another point I was trying to make about Credo's exaggerations...slavery was powered by ' economics '...as horrifying as some ships likely were, it doesn't make sense to me that they would purchase slaves ( for instance ) at the port of Senegal and then toss their ' profit cargo ' overboard...Credo's assessment is probably right in some cases but I hardly think it was the norm, seeing as it makes no economic sense to have half your cargo die en route to your payoff.They had to buy these slaves and then transport them for resale. So they would want most of their cargo to survive and in good enough shape to sell for the highest dollar. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 06:59 pmThose figures of 400 and 600 includes the crew. ;) Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 1By TheTAZZone on June 02, 2011 at 07:05 pm- They had to buy these slaves and then transport them for resale. So they would want most of their cargo to survive and in good enough shape to sell for the highest dollar. -They wouldn't want to show up at a port in America with half the cargo they left with and the rest too emaciated to sell.That just doesn't make any sense. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Anastasia on June 02, 2011 at 07:15 pmThe horror is difficult to imagine. Report abuseLog In To Vote Score: 2By Caballero_69 on June 02, 2011 at 08:39 pmWhile there is some room argument over statistics and specifics, it is undeniable that the Maafa inflicted excruciating suffering and grotesque indignities on hundreds of thousands of human beings through abduction, enslavement, imperialistic colonization, dehumanization, oppression and exploitation. It also cannot be denied that academic and social factors and forces have categorized Africans into color labels and relegated many of them explicitly and almost all of them implicitly into economic, social, political, and legal disenfranchisement with continuing manifestations in contemporary societies.Recognizing this as a genuine Holocaust perpetrated over centuries does not reveal an enervating, reflexive guilt complex. It simply shows a willingness to recognize a glaring exampl

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