Vega is 25 light-years away from the Earth, visible in the summer sky of the Northern Hemisphere. It is the brightest star of the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere.
Over a 26,000-year cycle, the North gradually shifts to different stars, due to the wobbling of the Earth's axis. Vega was the North Star several thousand years ago, and will replace Polaris to be the North Star again in about 12,000 years. While brightness has been the popular point of Vega, its region has been quite the research and discovery hotbed.
Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy discovered that Vega is whipping around so quickly that its poles are several thousand degrees warmer than the equator. The star, which rotates every 12.5 hours, is at 90 percent of its critical rotation speed, or the velocity at which it would tear itself apart. The Sun, in comparison, takes 27 days.
Aside from its extreme polar temperature, one major consequence of Vega's speedy rotation is that it bulges significantly at its equator: the star is nearly 23 percent fatter than it is tall. Because of the elliptical shape, gravity is no longer even across the entire surface.
The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) has detected an excess infrared flux, eventually determined to come from dust heated by the visual/UV luminosity of Vega. What made the detection intriguing is that the flux is beyond what would be expected from the star alone. It was then proposed that this radiation came from a field of orbiting particles with a dimension on the order of a millimetre.
Vega appears to have a circumstellar disk of dust. This dust is likely to be the result of collisions between objects in an orbiting debris disk, which is analogous to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System. Stars that display an infrared excess because of dust emission are termed Vega-like stars
Antimatter celestial bodies
A unique pair of telescopes was oriented towards the star Vega, specifically the orientation for the pair of matter stars Epsilon Alpha and Epsilon Beta near Vega. Using the Santilli Telescope and a Galileo telescope, Dr. Ruggero Maria Santilli of Thunder Energies Corporation ( OTCQB:TNRG ), along with his team of scientists, was able to capture the first detections of antimatter galaxies, cosmic rays and asteroids in the history of mankind.
The images detected by the telescope showed anomalous streaks and circles that were absent in pictures of the same region of the sky from a Galileo telescope, thus suggesting antimatter as their origin. All the images taken by the Santilli telescope showed streaks and circles of darkness, rather than light. The detections were independently confirmed by prominent institutions and scientists. The discovery supports the theory that antimatter has the negative energy of light, as predicted by the isodual theory of antimatter.
Astronomers have discovered a giant asteroid belt circling the bright star Vega, similar to that of the Sun. According to scientists, this discovery may ultimately reveal an entire solar system of planets. The newfound asteroid belt layout suggests that Vega is surrounded by an icy outer belt of asteroids. It is also suggested that the star has a warm inner space rock belt. The warm inner asteroid belt is separated from the cooler outer space rock ring by a wide gap.
The presence of these belts and the wide gap suggests that Vega could be surrounded by multiple undiscovered planets. This Vega discovery was made possible thanks to NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope and the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory.