Water contamination is a pervasive issue these days. Industrial expansion has been blamed a lot for spread of contaminants in the water, but there is more to it. Not just industries, human habitations are also somewhat responsible for the marine pollution. Humans unknowingly throw their household waste in the nearby drainage systems which open up in rivers. Previously these drainage systems used to throw this polluted liquid directly into the sea or rivers they were connected to. All this together caused substantial amount of contamination.
To fight the situation several steps were taken. Water treatment plants started treating water before releasing it into large aquatic bodies. Industries installed filters like bag filters, cartridge filters, etc. capture pollutants and toxic agents.
1. Fecal coliform and E coli :
These are two types of bacteria that inflict diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other related symptoms. These bacteria are usually present in human or animal fecal matter.
2. Coliform bacteria:
Malfunctioning of water treatment systems or any obstacles in pipelines and drainage might result in the formation of these bacteria. They themselves are not harmful but their presence signifies that they are accompanied by many other contaminants.
This means haziness of a liquid due to presence of particles that cannot be seen through naked eyes. The particles may be harmless but they act as shield for bacteria, viruses or other microbes. Turbidity normally interferes with disinfection process.
4. Alpha radiations:
Certain minerals are radioactive and emit alpha radiations. If these alpha radiations exceed EPA standards and are consumed for several years unknowingly, then they might suffer from cancer.
5. Beta and photon emitters:
Radioactive minerals also produce beta and photon radiations. Those who drink water containing such minerals may not know that they are exposed to a very high risk of cancer. If the amount of these radiations consumed goes beyond EPA limit, it can cause cancer.
Household waste, sewage and animal waste contains a harmful parasite called Cryptosporidium. When such a waste is discharged into the lakes or rivers, it explodes the parasite infestation in lakes or rivers, thereby polluting them. Cryptosporidium is has a hard outer shell, which makes it highly resistant to chlorine. This microbe is a root cause of cryptosporidiosis and mild gastrointestinal disease. If not treated in time, these diseases can be fatal.
Like alpha and beta particle, EPA has prescribed some standards for the radium particles also, which are applicable especially for radium 226 and 228. If their consumption exceeds the prescribed limit, the risk of getting cancer increases simultaneously.
Radon is gas and those exposed to radon are highly prone to lung cancer. Radon can accumulate or dissolve in water found in underground sources like wells and the one we drink. It can also mix easily with the air at our homes.
Consumption of this highly toxic metal can damage bladder, lungs, heart, kidney and liver. Arsenic intake can cause slowdown of central & peripheral nervous system and circulatory system which can severely damage the overall functioning of the body parts.
10. Lead :
Lead drains away into water as a result of the plumbing processes in the old buildings. Children and pregnant women are highly vulnerable to the health harms that lead consumption inflicts.